Saturday, November 8, 2008

Mahabharata 1


MahaBharata (Razmnama versi Persia) merupakan Sejarah (itihasa). Kisah-kisah pada tradisi India digolongkan menjadi:
  • Kavya (isinya bisa jadi tidak benar namun dituliskan dengan cara yang sungguh Indah),
  • Purana (Cerita-cerita yang tidak sungguh-sungguh terjadi namun memiliki nilai pendidikan, tujuannya agar orang mengerti bahwa dengan berbuat baik akan mendapat pahala baik),
  • Itikatha merupakan kejadian-kejadian yang disusun secara kronologis ataupun kejadian-kejadian yang berbeda-beda dan
  • Itihasa berasal dari kata ‘hasati’ = tertawa, merupakan bagian Itikata yang mempunyai nilai pendidikakan
Itihasa [Mahabharata dan Ramayana] dan Purana disebut juga Pancama Veda atau Veda yang kelima. Itihasa dan Purana digolongkan kedalam Smerti, sedangkan 4 Veda lainnya [Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda dan Atharva Veda] digolongkan sebagai Sruti . Bukti mengenai Itihasa adalah Pancama Veda disebutkan di Atharva Veda:

"He approached the brhati meter, and thus the Itihasas, Puranas, Gathas and Narasamsis became favorable to him. One who knows this verily becomes the beloved abode of the Itihasas, Puranas, Gathas and Narasamsis." [Atharva Veda 15.6.10–12]

Juga dalam Upanisad-Upanisad:

nama va rg-vedo yajur-vedah sama-veda atharvanas caturtha itihasa-puranah pancamo vedanam vedah

"Indeed, Rg, Yajur, Sama and Atharva are the names of the four Vedas. The Itihasas and Puranas are the fifth Veda." (Kauthumiya Chandogya Upanisad 7.1.4)

asya mahato bhutasya nihsvasitam etad yad rg-vedo yajur-vedah sama
vedo’tharvangirasa itihasah puranam ityadina


"O Maitreya, the Rg, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Vedas as well as the Itihasas and the Puranas all manifest from the breathing of the Lord." (Madhyandina-sruti, Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad 2.4.10)

Mahabharata ditulis oleh Begawan Byasa atau Vyasa dari India. Vyasa lahir dari keluarga Nelayan yang hidup disuatu tempat di pertemuan sungai Gangga dan Yamuna dekat Prayaga. Warna tanah tempat Vyasa lahir adalah kehitam-hitaman (Sanskrit = Krsna; Pali = Kanha] sehingga disebut Krsna Dwipa. Anak yang lahir ditempat itu disebut Krsna Dwipayana/Kanha Dipayana.

Literatur Veda menunjukan bahwa Vyasa bukan hanya 1 orang, sebagaimana disebutkan di Visnu Purana Book 3, Ch 3:

In every third world age (Dvapara), Vishnu, in the person of Vyasa, in order to promote the good of mankind, divides the Veda, which is properly but one, into many portions. Observing the limited perseverance, energy, and application of mortals, he makes the Veda fourfold, to adapt it to their capacities; and the bodily form which he assumes, in order to effect that classification, is known by the name of Veda-vyasa. Of the different Vyasas in the present Manvantara and the branches which they have taught, you shall have an account. Twenty-eight times have the Vedas been arranged by the great Rishis in the Vaivasvata Manvantara... and consequently eight and twenty Vyasas have passed away; by whom, in the respective periods, the Veda has been divided into four. The first... distribution was made by Svayambhu (Brahma) himself; in the second, the arranger of the Veda (Vyasa) was Prajapati... (and so on up to twenty-eight).

juga di Matsya Purana, yang menyatakan setidaknya ada 4 Vyasa yang berbeda:

kalenagrahanam matva puranasya dvijottamah
vyasa-rupam aham krtva samharami yuge yuge


"O best of the brahmanas, understanding that the Purana would gradually become forgotten, in every yuga I appear in the form of Vyasa and condense it." [Matsya Purana 53.8-9]

Juga di Literatur Buddhis, yaitu pada kitab Jataka, Suttapitaka yang merupakan kisah-kisah kehidupan Sang Buddha di kehidupan lampaunya, terdapat dua Kanha-Dipayana:
  • Jataka no 444, Kanha-Dipayana Jataka, dinyatakan bahwa Sang Buddha dan Sariputta [muridNya] masing-masing menjadi Pertapa Kakak adik, yaitu Pertapa Kanha-Dipayana dan Adiknya Pertapa Ani-Mandaviya
  • Jataka no 454, Gatha Jataka, Sang Buddha dan Sariputra [muridNya], juga menjadi kakak adik, namun kali ini Sariputra yang menjadi kakak tertua. Kisah ini adalah kisah mengenai 10 saudara yang bernama Vasudeva [kesava; Kanha = krisna = hitam], Baladeva, Ajjuna, GathaPandita dan 6 Saudara lainnya. Sang Buddha menjadi sang Adik, yaitu Gathapandita, sedangkan Sariputra menjadi sang kakak, yaitu Vasudeva [kesava] Raja dari kerajaan Drawaka akhirnya meninggal di panah seorang pemburu bernama Jara. Sedangkan Pertapa Kanha-Dipayana di jataka no 454 ini bukan kelahiran sebelumnya sang Buddha.
MahaBharata, berasal dari kata Bhar = sesuatu yang memberikan makanan; Tan = memperluas, memperkembangkan; varsa = Negeri. Saat jaman MahaBharata, BharataVarsa terdapa banyak negeri kecil-kecil seperti Amga (sekarang Bhagalpur) yang bersebelahan dengan Maghada (Magha = semua pendeta yang menolak Veda, da=penganut) merupakan kerajaan terbesar,Vaeshali/videha (disebelah sungai Gangga), Kashirajya (dibarat sungai Sone) kuru dan pancalala (sekarang Hayana, sekitar Delhi), dll. Kerajaan-kerajaan kecil itu sering berperang memperebutkan daerah yang subur.

Latar belakang MahaBharata

MahaBharata merupakan kisah kilas balik yang dituturkan oleh Resi Wesampayana untuk Maharaja Janamejaya yang gagal mengadakan upacara korban ular. Sesuai dengan permohonan Janamejaya, kisah tersebut merupakan kisah raja-raja besar yang berada di garis keturunan Maharaja Yayati, Bharata, dan Kuru, yang tak lain merupakan kakek moyang Maharaja Janamejaya. Kemudian Kuru menurunkan raja-raja Hastinapura yang menjadi tokoh utama MahaBharata. Mereka adalah Santanu, Chitrāngada, Wicitrawirya, Dretarastra, Pandu, Yudistira, Parikesit dan Janamejaya.

Para Raja India Kuno

MahaBharata banyak memunculkan nama raja-raja besar pada zaman India Kuno seperti Bharata, Kuru, Parikesit (Parikshita), dan Janamejaya. MahaBharata merupakan kisah besar keturunan Bharata, dan Bharata adalah salah satu raja yang menurunkan tokoh-tokoh utama dalam MahaBharata.

Kisah Sang Bharata diawali dengan pertemuan Raja Duswanta dengan Sakuntala. Raja Duswanta adalah seorang raja besar dari Chandrawangsa keturunan Yayati, menikahi Sakuntala dari pertapaan Bagawan Kanwa, kemudian menurunkan Sang Bharata, raja legendaris. Sang Bharata lalu menaklukkan daratan India Kuno. Setelah ditaklukkan, wilayah kekuasaanya disebut Bharatawarsha yang berarti wilayah kekuasaan Maharaja Bharata (konon meliputi Asia Selatan). Sang Bharata menurunkan Sang Hasti, yang kemudian mendirikan sebuah pusat pemerintahan bernama Hastinapura. Sang Hasti menurunkan Para Raja Hastinapura. Dari keluarga tersebut, lahirlah Sang Kuru, yang menguasai dan menyucikan sebuah daerah luas yang disebut Kurukshetra (terletak di negara bagian Haryana, India Utara). Sang Kuru menurunkan Dinasti Kuru atau Wangsa Kaurawa. Dalam Dinasti tersebut, lahirlah Pratipa, yang menjadi ayah Prabu Santanu, leluhur Pandawa dan Korawa.

Kerabat Wangsa Kaurawa (Dinasti Kuru) adalah Wangsa Yadawa, karena kedua Wangsa tersebut berasal dari leluhur yang sama, yakni Maharaja Yayati, seorang kesatria dari Wangsa Chandra atau Dinasti Soma, keturunan Sang Pururawa. Dalam silsilah Wangsa Yadawa, lahirlah Prabu Basudewa, Raja di Kerajaan Surasena, yang kemudian berputera Sang Kresna, yang mendirikan Kerajaan Dwaraka. Sang Kresna dari Wangsa Yadawa bersaudara sepupu dengan Pandawa dan Korawa dari Wangsa Kaurawa.

Pandawa dan Kurawa adalah bangsa Jat (satu dari beberapa bangsa asli India), Persatuan ini mulai digagas dengan perkawinan-perkawinan misalnya Bima menikahi Hidimba, gadis Mongol dari India Timur; Krsna menikahi Rukmini, gadis dari perbatasan timur-laut; Arjuna menikahi Citramgada, gadis Mongol dari negeri Manipura

Sistem kekerabatan yang digunakan di jaman MahaBharata adalah Matrilinier dan Patriliier. Dalam setiap kelompok terdapat seorang wanita yang disebut ‘Goshi Mata’ orang-orang memperkenalkan diri dengan menyebut nama wanita itu. System ini digunakan di daerah India Selatan dan Barat (bengala, Assam dan Kerala) contoh: pandawa lima mengenal diri mereka sebagai Kuntiya, anak-anak kunti.

Beberapa kelompok yang tinggal di bukit tertentu (gotra=penduduk di suatu bukit tertentu), orang memperkenalkan diri dengan menyebut pemimpin gotranya. Sistem ini digunakan di sekitar Delhi dan India barat laut, contoh pemimpinnya Kasyapa maka disebut Kasyapa Gotra.

Sistem Perkawinan adalah Poliandri, Poligami, Momogami. Poliandri ada pada bangsa Mongol di India Utara (sekarangpun di tibet dan Laddakh) Misalnya Drupadi menikahi Pandawa Lima secara sekaligus. Kunti mempunyai 4 Anak (Karna, Yudistira, Bima dan Arjuna) dari 4 Suami. System ini disebut Niyoga Putra dan tidak dipandang buruk pada jaman itu. Mahabarata di Pewayangan Jawa, yang terkena pengaruh Islam Drupadi dinyatakan bersuami satu. Padahal di MahaBharata versi India. Masing-masing suami memberikan satu anak kepada Drupadi.

Secara singkat, MahaBharata merupakan kisah mempersatukan bangsa-bangsa india yang terdiri dari banyak kerajaan kecil saat itu menjadi Bharatavarsa yang berpusat di sekitar konflik Pandawa lima dengan Korawa (sepupu mereka, seratus orang-an, jumlahnya 102 orang[]) mengenai sengketa hak pemerintahan tanah negara Astina. Puncaknya adalah perang Bharatayuddha di medan Kurusetra dan pertempuran berlangsung selama delapan belas hari.

Di India ditemukan dua versi utama MahaBharata dalam bahasa Sansekerta yang agak berbeda satu sama lain. Kedua versi ini disebut dengan istilah "Versi Utara" dan "Versi Selatan". Biasanya versi utara dianggap lebih dekat dengan versi yang tertua.

Antara tahun 1919 dan 1966, para pakar di Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Pune, membandingkan banyak naskah dari wiracarita ini yang asalnya dari India dan luar India untuk menerbitkan suntingan teks kritis dari MahaBharata. Suntingan teks ini terdiri dari 13.000 halaman yang dibagi menjadi 19 jilid. Lalu suntingan ini diikuti dengan Harivasa dalam 2 jilid dan 6 jilid indeks. Suntingan teks inilah yang biasa dirujuk untuk telaah mengenai MahaBharata.

Pengaruh dalam budaya

Selain berisi cerita kepahlawanan, MahaBharata juga mengandung nilai-nilai Hindu, mitologi dan berbagai petunjuk lainnya. Oleh sebab itu kisah MahaBharata ini dianggap suci, teristimewa oleh pemeluk agama Hindu. Kisah yang semula ditulis dalam bahasa Sansekerta ini kemudian disalin dalam berbagai bahasa, terutama mengikuti perkembangan peradaban Hindu pada masa lampau di Asia, termasuk di Asia Tenggara.

Di Indonesia, salinan berbagai bagian dari MahaBharata, seperti Adiparwa, Wirataparwa, Bhismaparwa dan mungkin juga beberapa parwa yang lain, diketahui telah digubah dalam bentuk prosa bahasa Kawi (Jawa Kuno) semenjak akhir abad ke-10 Masehi. Yakni pada masa pemerintahan raja Dharmawangsa Teguh (991-1016 M) dari Kadiri. Karena sifatnya itu, bentuk prosa ini dikenal juga sebagai sastra parwa.

Yang terlebih populer dalam masa-masa kemudian adalah penggubahan cerita itu dalam bentuk kakawin, yakni puisi lawas dengan metrum India berbahasa Jawa Kuno. Salah satu yang terkenal ialah kakawin Arjunawiwaha (Arjunawiwāha, perkawinan Arjuna) gubahan mpu Kanwa. Karya yang diduga ditulis antara 1028-1035 M ini (Zoetmulder, 1984) dipersembahkan untuk raja Airlangga dari kerajaan Medang Kamulan, menantu raja Dharmawangsa.

Karya sastra lain yang juga terkenal adalah kakawin Bharatayuddha, yang digubah oleh mpu Sedah dan belakangan diselesaikan oleh mpu Panuluh (Panaluh). Kakawin ini dipersembahkan bagi Prabu Jayabhaya (1135-1157 M), ditulis pada sekitar akhir masa pemerintahan raja Daha (Kediri) tersebut. Di luar itu, mpu Panuluh juga menulis kakawin Hariwangśa di masa Jayabaya, dan diperkirakan pula menggubah Gaţotkacāśraya di masa raja Kertajaya (1194-1222 M) dari Kediri. Di dalam masa yang lebih belakangan, kitab Bharatayuddha telah disalin pula oleh pujangga kraton Surakarta Yasadipura ke dalam bahasa Jawa modern pada sekitar abad ke-18.

Beberapa kakawin lain turunan MahaBharata yang juga penting untuk disebut, di antaranya adalah Kŗşņāyana (karya mpu Triguna) dan Bhomāntaka (pengarang tak dikenal, abad ke-12) keduanya dari jaman kerajaan Kediri, dan Pārthayajña (mpu Tanakung) di akhir jaman Majapahit. Salinan naskah-naskah kuno yang tertulis dalam lembar-lembar daun lontar tersebut juga diketahui tersimpan di Bali.

Kitab Adiparwa yang diterjemahkan dari Bahasa Sansekerta ke Bahasa Jawa Kuno atau Bahasa Kawi, banyak digubah menjadi cerita pewayangan. Dalam kitab Adiparwa yang diterjemahkan dari Bahasa Sansekerta mungkin terdapat perbedaan dengan lakon pewayangannya, yang kadang-kadang besar sekali, sehingga memberi kesan bahwa segala sesuatunya terjadi di Jawa. Hal ini disebabkan oleh kecerdasan para pujangga masa lampau yang mampu memindah alam pikiran para pembaca atau pendengarnya dari suasana India menjadi Jawa Asli. Jika Hastinapura sebenarnya terdapat di India, maka nama-nama seperti Jonggringsalaka, Pringgandani, Indrakila, Gua Kiskenda, sampai Gunung Mahameru dibawa ke tanah Jawa.

Begitu pula dengan tokoh Pancawala (Pancakumara). Jika dalam versi aslinya mereka terdiri dari lima orang, maka dalam pewayangan mereka dikatakan hanya satu orang saja. Menurut Mulyono dalam artikelnya berjudul “Dewi Dropadi: Antara kitab MahaBharata dan Pewayangan Jawa”, menyatakan bahwa terjadinya perbedaan cerita tentang Pancawala antara kitab MahaBharata dengan cerita dalam pewayangan Jawa karena pengaruh perkembangan agama Islam di tanah Jawa. Hal serupa juga terjadi pada kisah Dewi Dropadi dalam kitab Adiparwa. Jika dalam Adiparwa ia bersuami lima orang, maka dalam pewayangan Jawa Dropadi hanya bersuami satu orang saja. Menurut hukum Islam, seorang wanita tidak boleh memiliki suami lebih dari satu. Maka dari itu, cerita Dewi Dropadi dalam kitab MahaBharata versi asli yang bercorak Hindu menyalahi hukum Islam. Untuk mengantisipasinya, para pujangga ataupun seniman Islam mengubah cerita tersebut agar sesuai dengan ajaran Islam. Pancawala yang sebenarnya merupakan lima putera Pandawa pun diubah menjadi seorang tokoh yang merupakan putera Yudistira saja.

Apakah Kisah MahaBharata benar-benar terjadi?

  • Prof. I.N. Iyengar yakin perang tersebut terjadi tahun 1478 SM
  • Dr. S. Balakrishna yakin perang tersebut terjadi tahun 2559 SM. [Atau di sini]. Juga disampaikannya bahwa Aryabhatta menyatakan Kaliyuga di mulai pada 3102 SM [Aryabhateeya by Brahmagupta, S.Shukla,New Delhi, INSA 1976]. Kitab Surya Siddhanta [Translation of an Ancient Indian Astronomical Text. Translation by Bapudeva, Varanasi, 1860] menyatakan matahari 54 derajat dari vernal equinox di Ujjain (75deg 47minE, 23deg 15min N) untuk Kaliyuga (yang dalam kalendar Julian: 17/18 February 3102 SM). Varaha Mihira menyatakan 2526 tahun sebelum tahun saka (entah: Shalivahana saka/79 M atau Vikrama Saka/57 SM) [Brihat Samhita]
  • Dr. B.N. Achar yakin perang tersebut terjadi di 22 Nov - 12 Des 3067 SM [Atau di sini].
  • Dr. P.V. Holay yakin perang tersebut terjadi mulai 13 Nov 3143 SM [Atau di sini]
  • Dr. P.V.Vartak yakin perang tersebut terjadi mulai 6 Okt - 2 Nov 5561 SM [Atau di sini]
  • Pembuktian fakta Mahabharata: [] dan []

18 Parwa (Astadasaparwa):

1. Adiparwa7.   Dronaparwa13. Anusasanaparwa
2. Sabhaparwa8.   Karnaparwa14. Aswamedhikaparwa
3. Wanaparwa9.   Salyaparwa15. Asramawasikaparwa
4. Wirataparwa10. Sauptikaparwa16. Mosalaparwa
5. Udyogaparwa11. Striparwa17. Prasthanikaparwa
6. Bhismaparwa12. Santiparwa18. Swargarohanaparwa



The Scientific Dating of the Mahabharat War
By Dr.P.V.Vartak

INTRODUCTION
The Mahabharat has excercised a continuous and pervasive influence on the Indian mind for milleniums. The Mahabharat, orginally written by Sage Ved Vyas in Sanskrut, has been translated and adapted into numerous languages and has been set to a variety of interpretations. Dating back to "remote antiquity", it is still a living force in the life of the Indian masses.

Incidently, the dating of the Mahabharat War has been a matter of challenge and controversy for a century or two. European scholars have maintained that the events described in the ancient Sanskrut texts are imaginary and subsequently, the Mahabharat derived to be a fictitiou tale of a war fought between two rivalries. Starting from the so- called Aryan invasion into Bharat, the current Bharatiya chronology starts from the compilation of the Rigved in 1200 B.C., then come other Ved's, Mahaveer Jain is born, then Gautam Buddha lives around 585 B.C. and the rest follows. In the meantime, the Brahmanas, Samhi- tas, Puranas, etc. are written and the thought contained therein is well-absorbed among the Hindu minds. Where does the Ramayan and Mahabharat fit in ? Some say that the Ramayan follows Mahabharat and some opine otherwise. In all this anarchy of Indian histography, the date of the Mahabharat (the mythical story!) ranges between 1000 B.C.to 300 B.C. Saunskrut epics were academically attacked occasion- ally - an attempt to disprove the authencity of the annals noted therein. For example, the European Indologiest Maxmuller, tried the interpret the astronomical evidences to prove that the observations recorded in the Hindu scriptures are imaginary, probably because it did not match the prevelant views of European historians!

On the contrary, many Bharatiya scholars have vehemently maintained the actual occurance of the Mahabharat War. Astronomical and literary evidences or clues from the Pauranic and Vaidik texts have been deci- phered to provide a conclusive date for the Mahabharat War. The fifth century mathematician, Aryabhatta, calculated the date of the Mahabharat War to be approximately 3100 B.C. from the planetary posi- tions recorded in the Mahabharat. Prof. C.V. Vaidya and Prof. Apte had derived the date to be 3101 B.C. and Shri. Kota Venkatachalam reckoned it to be 3139 B.C. However, the astronomical data used by the above, and many other, scholars contained some errors as examined by a scho- lar from Pune, Dr. P.V. Vartak. Using astronomical references and variety of other sources, Dr. Vartak has derived the date of the ini- tiation of the Mahabharat War to be 16th October 5561 B.C. This pro- posed date has been examined by a few scholars and has been verfied. This may prove to be a break-through in deciding the chronology of the events in the history of Bharat (and probably the World).

In the following few posts, I have made an attempt to provide a glance at the proofs provided by Dr. Vartak in propounding the date of the very important landmark in the history of Bharat (World?), i.e., Mahabharat War. Only major points have been extracted from two sources: Dr.P.V. Vartak's Marathi book "Swayambhu" and "Scientific Dating of the Mahabharat War" in English.

INSCRIPTIONS
Some scholars rely on the various inscriptions found in the temples and elsewhere to fix the date of Mahabharat War. If there is no other alternative then this method is tolerable, otherwise it is not reli- able because all the known inscriptions are dated as far back as 400 AD. Those who prepared those inscriptions were not conversant with the scientific methods available now in the modern Science Age. So, why should we depend on the conjectures of the ancient people? Why not use scientific methodology to come to the conclusion ourselves? I will prefer the use of the modern scientific ways to fix the date of Mahabharat War rather than to rely on the Inscriptions which are vague and inconclusive. Let us examine two famous inscriptions always quoted by the scholars.

AIHOLE INSCRIPTION
All the scholars have relied on this inscription found in the Jain Temple at Aihole prepared by one Chalukya King Pulakeshi. It says, according to scholars, that the temple was constructed in 30+3000+700+5 = 3735 years, after the Bharat War and 50+6+500 = 556 years of Shaka era in Kali era. Today Shaka era is 1910. Hence 1910- 556 = 1354 years ago the temple was constructed. Thus the year of inscribing this note is 634 AD. At this time 3735 years had passed from the Bharat War. So the date of the War comes to 3101 BC. This is also the date of Kali Yuga Commencement. Naturally, it is evident that relying on the beginning of Kaliyuga Era and holding that the War took place just before the commencement of Kaliyuga, this inscription is prepared. It is obvious from the Mahabharat that the War did not happen near about the beginning of Kaliyuga. (I have considered this problem fully at a later stage.) If we can see that the inscription is prepared by relying on some false assumption, we have to neglect it because it has no value as an evidence. Moreover the interpretation done by the scholars is doubtful because they have not considered the clauses separately and they held Bharat War and Kali Era as one and the same.

The verse inscribed is:
Trinshatsu Trisahasreshu Bhaaratdahavaditaha |
Saptabda Shatayukteshu Gateshwabdeshu Panchasu |
Panchashatasu Kalaukale Shatasu Panchashatsu cha |
Samatsu Samatitasu Shakaanamapi Bhoobhujaam ||

I would like to interprete the verse considering the clauses of the verse. It says "3030 years from the Bharat War" in the first line, ( Trinshatsu Trisahasreshu Bhaaratdahavaaditaha) where the first clause oF the sentence ends. in the second line, the second clause starts and runs upto the middle of the third line thus ( Saptabda.....Kalaukale) This means 700+5+50 = 755 years passed in the Kali Era. The remaining third clause is ( Shatasu )

Here the verse does not specifically say the Shalivahan Shaka but Scholars have taken granted that it is Shalivahan Shaka without any base or reasoning. The verse may have mentioned some other Shaka kings from ancient era. So we we neglect the doubtful part of the Shaka counting which is useless and adhere to the Kali era expressly mentioned. It is clear from the former portion of the verse that 3030 years passed from the Bharat War and 755 years passed from Kali Era. Kali Era started from 3101 BC. 755 years have passed so 3101-755 = 2346 BC is the year when 3030 years had passed from the Bharat War. So 2346+3030 = 5376 BC appears to be the date of Bharat War.

HISSE BORALA INSCRIPTION OF DEVA SENA
This inscription is of 5th century AD and scholars hold that it throws light on the time of Mahabharat War. It states. that Saptarshis were in Uttara at the time of this inscription. Scholars hold that Saptarshis were in Magha at the time of Yudhishthira because Varahmihira has stated so in Brihat-Samhita. Scholars also hold that Yudhishthira's time is 3137 BC. Saptarshis stay in one Nakshtra for 100 years, and there are 27 Nakshatras. Hence Saptarshis would be again in Magha 2700 years later during 4th century BC. From here if we count upto 5th century AD there fall eight Nakshatras. Hence in the 5th century AD, Saptarshis should be in Anuradha and not Uttara. From Anuradha to Uttara Ashadha there is adifference of five Nakshatras, while from Anuradha to Uttara Phalguni there is a difference of six Nakshatras. So it is quite evident that at the time of Yudhisthira Saptarshis were not in Magha as held by the scholars. Here I have shown a mistake of five to six hundreds of years. Moreover, there are three 'Uttaras' and the inscription has not stated specifically which Uttara it denotes. Thus this source is unreliable and should be rejected.

I have considered Saptarshi Reckoning in details at a later stage on page 11. While going to examine the sources scientifically, I shall give the honour of the first place to Astronomy. One may question that how far Astronomy was advanced in those olden days? I say affirmatively that Astronomy was far advanced in the ancient times, and the ancient Indian sages had perfected the science of time measurement relying on Astronomy.

GREEK RECORDS
1. "The Greek Ambassodor Magasthenis has recorded that 138 generations have passed between Krishna and Chandragupta Maurya. Many scholars have taken this evidence, but taking only 20 years per generation they fixed the date of Krishna as 2760 years before Chandragupta. But this is wrong because the record is not of ordinary people to take 20 years per generation. In the matter of general public, one says that when a son is born a new generation starts. But in the case of kings, the name is included in the list of Royal Dynasty only after his corona- tion to the throne. Hence, one cannot allot 20 years to one king. We have to find out the average per king by calculating on various Indian Dynasties. I have considered 60 kings from various dynasties and calculated the average of each king as 35 years. Here is a list of some of important kings with the no. of years ruling.


Chandragupta Mourya330-298 B.C.        32 years.
Bindusar298-273 B.C.25 years.
Ashok273-232 B.C.41 years.
Pushyamitra Shunga190-149 B.C.41 years.
Chandragupta Gupta308-330 A.D.22 years.
Samudragupta330-375 A.D.45 years.
Vikramaditya375-414 A.D.39 years.
Kumargupta414-455 A.D.41 years.
Harsha606-647 A.D.41 years.
---------
327 years.
The average is 327/9 = 36.3 years.

Multiplying 138 generations by 35 years we get 4830 years before Chan- dragupta Mourya. Adding Chandrgupta's date 320 B.C. to 4830 we get 5150 B.C. as the date of Lord Krishna.

2. Megasthenis, according to Arian, has written that between Sandro- cotus to Dianisaum 153 generations and 6042 years passed. From this data, we get the average of 39.5 years per king. From this we can cal- culate 5451 years for 138 generations. So Krishna must have been around 5771 B.C.

3. Pliny gives 154 generations and 6451 years between Bacchus and Alexander. This Bacchus may be the famous Bakasura who was killed by Bhimasena. This period comes to about 6771 years B.C.

Thus Mahabharat period ranges from 5000 B.C. to 6000 B.C.

SHRIMAD BHAGWAT
a) Bhagwat gives 28 Kaurava kings from Parikshit to Kshemaka. "From Kshemaka, the Pandava Dynasty will end in Kaliyug, and Magadha Dynasty will start." [Bhagwad 9-22-45]. This implies that the Pandava kings ruled before the advent of Kaliyug, i.e., before 3101 B.C and Magadha dynasty will not super-impose the Pandava Dynasty.

b) Further it is stated in Bhagwat that after 28 Kaurava kings, Magadha Dynasty would rule and 22 Magadha kings would govern for 1000 years. Here it is given a average of 1000 years for 22 kings. It can be found that the 28 Kaurava kings would have ruled for 1273 years and then Magadha Dynasty started with King Sahadeva, whose son was Somapi. On the other hand, Maghasandhi was the son of Sahadeva and the grand- son of Jarasandha [Ashwamedh-82]. many scholars have neglected this fact and have assumed that this Sahadeva fought in the Mahabharat War and was the son of Jarasandha.

c) Ripunjaya is the last king in the list of 22 Magadhas. But Bhagwat 12.1.2-4 mentions that Puranjaya will be the last king who will be killed by his minister Shunak. It is to be noted that there is no men- tion of the kings between Ripunjaya and Puranjaya. People have wrongly taken the two names as that of one and the same person, without any evidence.

d) Bhagwat 12.1.2-4 state that Shunak would coronate his son Pradyota as the King and later five Kings would rule for 138 years. After this Pradotya Dynasty, Shishunga Kings, 10 in number, would rule for 360 years. Thereafter 9 Nandas would rule for 100 years. Nanda would be destroyed by a Brahmin and Chandragupta would be enthroned. We know that Chandragupta Maurya ascended the throne in 324 B.C. So we can thus calculate backwards:

9 Nandas  100 years
10 Shishungas  360 years
5 Pradotyas138 years
22 Magadhas1000 years
28 Kauravas1273 years
---------------------
74 Kings2871 years

We find here only 74 kings, but Megasthenes tells us about 138 kings. So 138-74=64 kings are missing. These may be from the period between Ripunjaya and Puranjaya. Thus calculating from the data of 74 kings who ruled for 2871 years, we get a period of 2496 years for 64 kings. Adding the two we get 5367 years for 138 kings. This is preceding Chandragupta's time, who came to throne in 324 B.C. Hence, 324+5367 = 5691 B.C. is the approximate date of Parikshit.

YUDHISHTIRA ERA AND KALIYUG
Scholars accept the date of the Mahabharat War to be 3100 B.C. which also happens to the initiation of the Yudhisthira Era. But this Era, is mentioned nowhere in the Mahabharat text itself! At the time of Aswamedha of Yudhisthira, Vyas has given descriptions in minute detail like collection of "Sruva", formation of wells and lakes, but never has written even a word about, such an important event, as the begin- ning of the Yudhisthira Era.

Mahabharat also never mentions anything about the beginning of the Kaliyug, even at the time of Krishna's death. Mahabharat Adiparva 2.13 states that the War took place in the interphase ("Antare") of the Dwapaar and Kali Eras. Thus it makes it clear that the evening of the Dwapaar has not yet ended and the Kaliyug had not started when the War took place.

SAPTARISHIS
Bhagwat states at 12.2.27-32 that Saptarishis stay 100 years in one Nakshatra. At the time of King Parikshit, the Saptarishis were in Magha. When they proceeded to Purvashadha, Kali would start. There are 11 Nakshatras from Magha to Purvashadha. Hence it is seen that Shukacharya tells Parikshit that after 1100 years Kaliyug will start. Kaliyug started at 3101 B.C. Hence 3101 + 1100 = 4201 B.C. is the date of Parikshit.

Other references from Shrimad Bhagwat points quite closely to the same year as above.

But who is this Parikshit ? Is he the son of Abhimanyu ? No. A minute observation of this reveals that the above is not Abhimanyu's son because Bhagwat is told to this Parikshit. On the other hand, Mahabharat is told to Janamejaya. In the Mahabharat, Parikshit's death has been recorded. Hence it is evident that Mahabharat was written and published after the death of Parikshit, the son of Abhimanyu. Bhagwat is written after Mahabharat according to the Bhagawat itself. This Bhagwat is told to some Parikshit. How can this Parikshit be the son of Abhimanyu who died before the Mahabharat writing ? So this Parikshit appears to be somebody else than Abhimanyu's son.

EQUINOX
Mahabharat mentions the ancient tradition as 'Shravanadini Nakshatrani',i.e., Shravan Nakshatra was given the first place in the Nakshatra- cycle (Adi-71/34 and Ashvamedh 44/2) Vishwamitra started counting the Nakshatras from Shravan when.he created 'Prati Srushti'. He was angry with the old customs. So he started some new customs. Before Vishvamitra's time Nakshatras were counted from the one which was occupied by the sun on the Vernal Equinox. Vishvamitra changed this fashion and used diagonally opposite point i.e. Autumnal Equinox to list the Nakshtras. He gave first place to Shravan which was at the Autumnal Equinox then. The period of Shravan Nakshatra on autumnal equinox is from 6920 to 7880 years B.C. This was Vishvamitra's period at the end of Treta yuga. Mahabharat War took place at the end of Dwapar yuga. Subtracting the span of Dwapar Yuga of 2400 years we get 7880 - 2400 = 5480 B.C. as the date of Mahabharat War.

ASTROLOGY
Some scholars rely on the horoscope of Lord Krishna to calculate his birth-date so as to establish the period of Mahabharat. But they do not realise that the horoscope is a forged one, prepared many thousand years after Krishna's death. Mahabharat Bhagvat and Vishnu purana have not given the planet positions at the time of Krishna's birth. It is well-known and is recorded in many scriptures that Krishna was born in a jail, then who could have casted his horoscope? Moreover Krishna was not a prince so nobody would have casted his horoscope. Hence it is not wise to rely on the horoscope. It is prepared recently by consid- ering the charateristics of Krishna and so is useless to fix the birth-date.

Mr. G.S. Sampath Iyengar and Mr. G.S. Sheshagiri have fixed the birth-date of Krishna as 27th July 3112 BC. 'The horoscope shows Lagna and Moon 52 deg. 15' Rohini, Jupiter 91 deg. 16' Punarvasu, Sun 148 deg. 15' Uttara Phalguni, Mercury 172 deg. 35' Hasta, Venus 180 deg. 15' Chitra, Saturn 209 deg. .57' Vishakha, Mars 270 deg. 1' Uttara Ashadha Rahu, 160 deg. 1'.

At present on 27th July 1979 the Sun was at 99 deg. 57', while at Krishna's birth, according to their opinion, the sun was at 148 deg. 15'. The difference is 48 deg. 18'. This shows that the Sun has receded back by 48 deg. 18' due to the precession at the rate of 72 years per degree. multiplying 48 deg. 18' by 72 we get 3456 years. This shows that Krishna was born 3456 years ago or substracting 1979 from it we can say that Krishna was born during 1477 BC. Thus 3112 BC is found to be wrong. We cannot accept such a wrong date derived from a manipulated borscope. (This horoscope is printed in "The Age of Bharat War" on page 241-Publisher, Motilal Banarasidas 1979).

ARCHEAOLOGY
In 1971, when I hinted at the date of Mahabharat war as 5500 years BC, Archeaologists frowned at me saying it as impossible because no cul- ture was found in India dating so much back. But now evidences are pouring in Archeaology itself showing cultures in India upto 30000 to 40000 years BC. Padmashri Late Mr. V.S. Wakankar has dated the paint- ings in the caves of Bhimbetaka of Madhya Pradesh to about 40000 BC.

Recently Dr. S.B. Rao, Emeritus Scientist of the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, 403004, has discovered under the sea, Dwaraka and dated it as between 5000 to 6000 BC. This news has been published by all the leading newspapers on 22th October 1988.

Motilal Banarasidas News Letter October 1988 gives a news on page 6 under the heading "50,000 year old Relics" as follows: Spectacular culture and physical relics dating back to 50,000 years BC have been excavated from the Central Narmada Valley in Madhya Pradesh. A team of Anthropological survey of India recently con- ducted the excavation. It explored sites in two districts Sebore and Hoshangabad.

In my book "Vastava Ramayan" I have shown the presence of culture in India as far back as 72000 years B.C. This recent news points to that ancient period. I am sure after some time Arecheaology may get evi- dence to show the presence of culture in India 72000 BC.

In Vastava Ramayan I have shown that Bali, the demon king went to south America during 17000 BC when the vernal equinox was at Moola Nakshatra. MLBD News letter Oct. 1988 gives a news thus :-"Dravidians in America" - According to a press report the Brazillian nuclear phy- sicist and researcher Arysio Nunes dos santos holds that the Dravi- dians of South India reached America much before Christopher Columbus.

Mr. Nunes dos Santos, of the' Federal University of Minas Gerais maintains that the Dravidians colonised a vast South American region 11000 years before the Europians reached the new world. Vestiges of the Dravidian presence in America, he says, include the strange phonetics of Gourani, Paraguay's national language. Moreover Bananas, Pine Apple, Cocunut and Cotton, all grown in India could have been taken to America by those navigators.

THE EXACT DATE OF MAHABHARAT WAR
16TH OCTOBER 5561 YEAR B.C.


Harivansh (Vishnu Purana A. 5) states that when Nanda carried Krishna to Gokul on Shravan Vadya Navami day, there was dry cow-dung spread all over the ground and trees were cut down. The presence of Dry Cowdung all over in Gokul indicates the presence of Summer in the month of Shravan. Trees are usually cut down in Summer to be used as fuel in the rainy season. The seasons move one month backwards in two thousand years. Today the rainy season starts in Jeshtha but two thousand years ago, at the time of KaIidas, rainy season used to start in Ashadha. At the time of Krishna's birth the Summer was in the month of Shravan while today it is in Vaishakha. Thus the summer is shifted by four months, hence Krishna's period comes to 4x2000 = 8000 years ago approximately. This means about 6000 years B.C., the same period we have seen above.

At the time of Mahabharat, the Vernal Equinox was at Punarvasu. Next to Punarvasu is Pushya Nakshtra. Vyas used "Pushyadi Ganana" for his Sayan method, and called Nirayan Pushya as Sayan Ashvini. He shifted the names of further Sayan Nakshtras accordingly. At that time Winter Solstice was on Revati, so Vyas gave the next Nakshatra Ashvini the first palee in the Nirayan list of Nakshatras. Thus he used Ashvinyadi Ganana for the Nirayan method. Using at times Sayan names and at times Nirayan names of the Nakshatras, Vyas prepared the riddles. By the clue that Nirayan Pushya means Sayan Ashvini, it is seen that Nirayan names of Nakshatras are eight Nakshatras ahead of the Sayan names Thus the Saturn in Nirayan Purva, and Sayan Rohini, Jupiter was in Nirayan Shravan, and Sayan Swati (near Vishakha), while the Mars was in Nirayan Anuradha, and Sayan Magha, Rahu was between Chitra and Swati, by Sayan way means it was in Nirayana. Uttara Ashadha (8 Nakshtras ahead). From these positions of the major planets we can calculated the exact date. My procedure is as follows:

I found out that on 5th May 1950, the Saturn was in Purva Phalguni. From 1950 I deducted 29.45 years to get the year 1920 when the Saturn was again in Purva. In this way I prepared a vertical column of the years when the Saturn was in Purva. Similarly, I prepared vertical columns of the years when the Jupiter was in Shravan and Rahu in Uttara Ashadha. Then I searched in horizontally to find out the year common in all the three columns. It was 5561-62 B.C. when all the three great planets were at the required places. Then I proceded for the detailed calculations.

Bhisma expired at the onset of Uttarayan i.e. on 22nd December. This is a fixed point according to the modern Scientific Calendar. He was on the arrow-bed for 58 nights and he had fought for ten days. Hence 68 days earlier than 22nd December the War had started. This shows that the War started on 16th October. We have to calculate the plane- tary positions of 16th October 5561 B.C.

SATURN
Encyclopedia of Astronomy by Larousse states that one rotation of Saturn takes 26 years and 166 days. One year means 365.25 days. So the Saturn's round takes 29.4544832 years.

5th May 1950, Saturn conjugated with Purva. We have to see its posi- tion in 5561 years B.C. 5561+1950 = 7511 years. 7511 divided by 29.4544832 gives 255.00362 rounds. This means that Saturn completed 255 rounds and has gone ahead by 0.00362 or 1.3 degrees. Hence Saturn was in conjugation with Purva on 5th May 5561 B.C. On 16th October' 5562nd B.C. i.e. 164 days later it must have travelled (0.0334597 degrees (daily pace) multiplied by 164 days =) 5.487 degrees. So Saturn was at 141 degrees or in Purva Nakshatra.

In October 1962, Saturn was at 281 dgrs. 1962 + 5561 = 7523 years. 7523 devided by 29.4544832 gives 255.41103 turns. After completing 255 full turns, Saturn has gone back by 0.411003 turn i.e. 148 dgrs. 281-148= 133 degrs. This was the position of Saturn in Purva.

Calculating from 1931 or 1989 also Saturn appears at 141 dgrs. in Purva. Thus on 16th of October 5562nd B.C. Saturn was in Purva as told by Vyas in Mahabharat.

RAHU
Rahu takes 18.5992 years per rotation. It was at 132 dgrs. on 16th Oct. 1979. 1979 + 5561 = 7540, divided by 18.5992 gives 405.39378 turns. 0.39378 turns means 141.7 dgrs. Rahu always goes in reverse direction. We have to go in the past, so adding 141.7 to orginal 132 we get 273 dgrs. This is Uttarashadha where Rahu was situated (by Nirayan method).

Calculations from 1989, 1962 and 1893 confirm Rahu in Uttara Ashadha.

JUPITER
Jupiter takes 11.863013 years per rotation. On 16th October 1979, it was at 129 dgrs. 1979+5561 = 7540. 7540 divided by 1.863013 gives 635.58892 turns. 0.58892 turn means 212 dgrs. So Jupiter was 212 dgrs behind the orginal position. 129 - 212 = -83. -83 means 360 - 83 = 277 degree 277 dgrs is the position of the star of Shravan. So Jupiter was in conjugation with Shravan. The span of Shravan is 280 deg. to 293 deg.

Calculations from 1989, 1932 and 1977 show Jupiter in 285 and 281 degrees or in the zone of Shravan. This confirms the position told by Vyas.

MARS
Mars takes 1.88089 years per rotation. On 16th October 1979, Mars was at 108 dgrs. 1979 + 5561 = 7540 yrs. 7540 divided by 1.88089 gives 4008.7405 turns. 0.7405 turns means 266 dgrs., Mars was 266 dgrs behind the original position of 108 deg. 108 - 266 = 158. 360 - 158 = 202 deg. This is just beyond the star of Vishakha which is at 200 dgrs. Though in Vishakha-zone Mars has crossed the Star of Vishakha and intends to go in Anuradha, so the description of Vyas as "Anurad- ham Prarthayate" that it requests or appeals Anuradha, appears to be correct.

Calculations from 1962 and 1900 show Mars at 206 and' 208 dgrs and therefore though in Vishakha, it can be called as appealing Anuradha "Anuradham Prarthayate". Thus it is seen that Vyas has used tricky but correct terms. He has not written any false statement because he was the Truth-abiding Sage.

HELIOCENTRIC AND GEOCENTRIC
Here an expert may raise a question whether I have used Heliocentric method or Geocentric method. I make it clear here that I have used the Heliocentric method that means I have considered the rotations of planets around the Sun. But after fixing the position of the planet around the Sun I have also seen where that planet will be seen from the earth.

I would like the scholars to consider one more point here. When I say that an insect is sitting near one o' clock position on your watch or clock, one may think that the insect is between 12 and 1 while other may think that it is between 1 and 2. So the span to find that insect is from 12 to 2. Similarly Vyas has mentioned the Nakshatra in the vicinity of the planet and therefore we have a scope of one Nakshatra on either side to find out the planet. Thus if our answer is between +13 deg. and -13 deg. from the given position we are successful. In my calculations I have achieved the perfect positions, but by chance, somebody gets a different position he is requested to consider a span of -,+ 13 degrees. The positions given by other scholars are far away than the positions recorded by Vyas, so they are not acceptable.

I request the scholars, to be careful while doing calculations not to take a retrograde position of the present planet, because that may give a false position. Please note that all the planets become retro- grade only apparently when our earth is approaching them. We need not consider their retrograde motion each year because their rotational periods around the Sun are fixed and in that they are seen retrograde from the earth apparently. We have to see if the last position of the planet is retrograde. This can be done easily by considering the position of the Sun and planet. Any external planet becomes retrograde when it is in the house from 5th to 9th from the Sun.

LEAP YEAR
Please note that i have taken 365.25 days for a solar year. It covers the general leap years, but it does not take into account the leap years abandoned at centuries. At the interval of 400 years leap years are taken according to the modern scientific calendar. If these cen- tury years are considered, there may be an error of 50 days in 7500 years duration. As for dates these 50 days are automatically accounted for because we have taken the winter solstice as fixed on 22nd December, and it is referred by Vyas, while describing Bhishma's death. As far as the planets like Saturn, Rahu and Jupiter are con- cerned 50 days are immaterial because in 50 days the Saturn will move only 1.6 deg. while Jupiter 4.1 deg. as an average. Hence their error is negligible.

Now, we have seen that all the four important planets satisfy their positions as told by Vyas on 16th October 5562nd B.C. Hence we have no other way but to accept this date as the exact date of Mahabharat War.

Please note that, so far, not a single Scholar has shown a date with the planetary positions satisfying the description by Vyas in Mahabharat. Late Mr. C. V. Vaidya and Prof. Apte show 3102 B.C., but their Mars is in Ashadha, Jupiter is in Revati, Saturn in Shatataraka and Rahu in Jeshtha. Prof. K. Shrinivasraghavan, Mr. Sam- pat Ayangar and Sheshagiri show 3067 B.C. but they put Jupiter and Saturn in Rohini and Sun, Rahu, Mars in Jeshtha. Garga, Varahmihir and Tarangini show 2526 Before Shaka i.e. 2449 B.C. But their Mars comes in Dhanishtha, Jupiter and Saturn in Bharani and Rahu in Hasta. P.C. Sengupta gives 2448 with Saturn 356 deg., Jupiter 8 deg., Mars 157 deg., Venus 200 deg., Sun 200 deg., (Ancient Indian chronology" Calcutta University). The Western scholars as well as Romeshchandra Datta and S. B. Roy show 1424 B.C. but their Saturn is in Shata- taraka, Jupiter in Chitra, Rahu in Purva and Sun in Anuradha with no eclipse. Billandi Ayer shows 1193 years B.C. but his Mars comes in Mula, Jupiter in Purva Bhadrapada, Saturn in Purva Ashadha and Rahu in Punarvasu. At 900 B.C. as is proposed by many other scholars, Jupiter comes in Mula, Rahu in Vishakha and Saturn in Jeshtha. Thus not a single scholar could coroborate his date with the facts written by Vyas.Hence, their dates have to be dismissed. (C. V. Vaidya's Upasamhar page 94." Age of Mahabharat War").

I have shown all the planetary positions correct to the description of Mahabharat. In addition I have shown that the seasons tally with my date, and the seasons never tally with other dates. I have solved all the planetary riddles from Mahabharat which nobody could dare. So 16th October 5562nd BC. is the exact date of the first day of the Mahabharat War. At the beginning of the War, Vyas promised Dhrutarashtra that he will write history of the Kauravas; so most probably Vyas must have written the Astronomical data immediately.

URANUS (known to Vyas in 5561 B.C)
All the planets, viz., Sun, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn and Rahu show correct positions mentioned in the Mahabharat on 16th December 5561 B.C. This must be the exact date of the Mahabharat War. After pin-pointing the exact date, it struck to me that the three additional planets mentioned with positions by Vyas, may be Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Vyas has named them as Shveta, Shyama and Teevra. Let us see if the conjecture is correct. We have to prove this with the help of Mathematics, because we have to go scientifically.

Vishesheena hi Vaarshneya Chitraam Pidayate Grahah....[10-Udyog.143]
Shevtograhastatha Chitraam Samitikryamya Tishthati....[12-Bheeshma.3]

In these two stanzas, Vyas states that some greenish white (Shveta) planet has crossed Chitra. This means that the planet was in Swati (or Vishakha, because Chitra and Swati are close together). This is the Sayan position hence Nirayan position is eight Nakshatras ahead in Shravan (or Dhanishtha). Neelakantha calls this "Mahapata" which means having greater orbit. Greater orbit indicates a planet beyond Saturn. Hence I assumed Shveta to be Uranus. Let us calculate and see if this true.

In October 1979, Uranus was at 206 degrees. Uranus takes 84.01 years per rotation. 1979 + 5561 = 7540. 7540/84.01 = 89.75122 turns. 0.75122 rotation means 270.4392 degrees. 206-270 = -64 = 296 degrees. This comes in the zone of Dhanishtha, but the star of Dhanishtha is at 297 degrees, so the position given by Vyas is confirmed. Hence Shveta must be Uranus.

In October 1883, Uranus was at 151 degrees. 1883 + 5561 = 7444 years. 7444/84.01 = 86.608498 rotations. 0.608498 turn means 219 degrees. 151-219 = 292 degrees. This is Shravan Nakshatra. So Uranus was in Shravan during Mahabharat War as stated by Vyas under the name of "Shveta".

1930 calculations show Uranus to be at 292.54 degrees or Shravan. Thus our mathematics proves that Vyas has given correct position of Uranus under the name of Shveta. This proves that Vyas had the knowledge of Uranus under the name of Shveta, supposed to have recently discovered by Herschel in 1781. Shveta means greenish white. Uranus is actually greenish white in colour. So Vyas must have seen Uranus with this own eyes. Uranus is of 6th magnitude and is visible to the naked eye according to the modern science.

Neelakantha of 17th century also had the knowledge of Uranus or Shveta. He writes in his commentary on Mahabharat (Udyog 143) that Shveta, or Mahapata was a famous planet in the Astronomical science of India. Neelakantha was about 100 years before Herschel, who sup- posedly discovered Uranus. So we can conclude that one hundred before Herschel, Uranus was known to the Indian Astronomers and Vyas had discovered it at or before 5561 year B.C.

NEPTUNE (was known to Vyas in 5561 B.C.)
In 1781 A.D., Herschel discovered Uranus; but its calculated positions never corroborated with the actual positions. So the experts thought of another planet beyond Uranus. They fixed its position by mathemat- ics, and at that site, it was discovered by German Astronomers in 1846 A.D. I have found that Neptune is also mentioned by Vyas in Mahabharat, under the name of "Shyama".

Shukrahah Prosthapade Poorve Samaruhya Virochate Uttare tu Parikramya Sahitah Samudikshyate....[15-Bheeshma.3]
Shyamograhah Prajwalitah Sadhooma iva Pavakah Aaindram Tejaswi Naksha- tram Jyesthaam Aakramya Tishthati...[16-Bheeshma.3]

Here Vyas says that there was some luminary with Venus in Poorva Bha- drapada. He adds further that a bluish white (Shyama) planet was in Jyeshtha and it was smoky (Sadhoom). Saayan Jyeshta means Nirayan Poorva Bhadrapada, so this is the description of one and the same planet named by Vyas as Shyama. Neelkantha calls it "Parigha" in his commentary on Mahabharat. Parigha means circumference, so this planet may be at the circumference of our solar system.; and so may be Nep- tune. Let us see by Mathematics is this statement is true. We will determine the position of Neptune on 16th December 5561 B.C.

Neptune takes 164.78 years per rotation. It was at 234 degrees in 1979. 1979 + 5561 = 7540 years. 7540 divided by 164.78 gives 45.75798 rotations. 0.75798 turn means 272.87 degrees. 234 - 272.87 = -38.87 = 321.13 degrees. This is the site of Poorva Bhadrapada. So Neptune was in Poorva-Bhadrapada during 5561 B.C.

In 1948, Neptune was at 172 degres. 1948 + 5561 = 7509. 7509/164.78 gives 45.56985 turns. 0.56985 turn means 205 degrees. 172-205 = -33 =360-33 = 327 deg. This is the zone of Poorva Bhadrapada.

In 1879, Neptune was at 20 degrees. 1879 + 5561 = 7440 years. 7440 divided by 164.78 gives 45.15111 turns. 0.15111 turn means 54.39 deg. 20 - 54.39 = -34.39 = 360 - 34.39 = 325.61 degrees. This is Poorva- Bhadrapada.

Thus the position of Shyama or Parigha is factually proved in the case of Neptune. Thus, we conclude that Vyas did know Neptune too. Vyas might have got his knowledge by Yogic Power or by Mathematics or by using telescopic lenses. Mathematics was far advanced then, that is why ancient Indian sages fixed the rate of precession of Equinoxes accurately. Even the world famous scientist Gamov praised the sages for their remarkable work in Mathematics. So could have mathematically calculated the position of Shyama or Neptune.

Mirrors are mentioned in the Mahabharat. So lenses too might have been present at that time. They had Microscopic Vision (Shanti A. 15,308). As microscopic vision was present, there might be telescopes too. Planets can be seen with mirrors as well as lenses. Vyas must have "seen" Neptune; its proof lies in the fact that he says that it is bluish white (Shyama). Neptune is, in fact, bluish white in colour. Hence we conclude that Neptune was known to Vyas in 5561 B.C.

PLUTO (was also known to Vyas in 5561 B.C)
Krittikaam Peedayan Teekshnaihi Nakshatram......[30-Bheeshma.3]

Vyas states that there was one Nakshatra, i.e, some immobile liminary troubling Krittika (Pleides) with its sharp rays. This "star" in Krit- tika must have been some "planet". It must have been stationary for many years, that is why Vyas called it Nakshatra which means a thing that does not move according to Mahabharat itself [Na Ksharati Iti Makshatram].

Hence the Nakshatra was a planet moving very slowly like pluto which takes nine years to cross one Nakshatra of 13 degrees. My assumption that this Nakshatra was Pluto gets confirmed by B.O.R.I (Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute?) Edition which states thus:

Krittikasu Grahasteevro Nakshatre Prathame Jvalan...... [26- Bhishma.3]

Some editions mention 'Grahasteekshnah'. Thus Teevra, Teekshana and Nakshatra are the names of one and the same planet (graha) which was in Krittlka in 5561 B.C. Let us see if Vyas has given these names to Pluto and if Pluto was in Krittika. It is stated that Krittika was troubled with sharp rays by that planet - this indicates that it was Nirayan Krittika.

Pluto was at 175 degrees in 1979. It takes 248 years per rotation. 1979+5561=7540 years. 7540 divided by 248 gives 30.403223 turns. 0.403223 turn means 145 degrees. 175 - 145 = 30 degrees. This is the site of Krittika. Thus it is proved beyond doubt that Vyas bas men- tioned the position of Pluto, which was discovered to the modern world in 1930. Vyas could have used his Yogic Vision or mathematical brain or a lens or some other device to discover Teevra, Teekshna' or Nakshatra or Pluto.

Thus all the three so-called 'New' planets are discovered from Mahabharat. It is usually held that before the discovery of Herschel in 1781 AD, only five planets were known to the world. This belief is wrong because Vyas has mentioned 'seven Great planets', three times in Mahabharat.

Deepyamanascha Sampetuhu Divi Sapta Mahagrahah....[2-Bhishma.17]

This stanza states that the seven great planets were brilliant and shining; so Rahu and Ketu are out of question. Rahu and Ketu are described as Graha' 23 meaning Nodal points. (Parus means a node). Evidently Rahu and Ketu are not included in these seven great planets. The Moon also is not included, because it was not visible on that day of Amavasya with Solar Eclipse. From the positions discovered by me and given by Vyas it is seen that Mars, Sun, Mercury, Jupiter, Uranus, Venus and Neptune were the seven great planets accumulated in a small field extending from Anuradha to Purva Bhadrapada. So they appeared to Ved-Vyas as colliding with each other, during total solar eclipse.

Nissaranto Vyadrushanta Suryaat Sapta Mahagrahah....[4-Karna 37].

This stanza clearly states that these seven great planets were 'seen' moving away from the Sun. As these are 'seen', Rahu and Ketu are out of question. This is the statement of sixteenth day of the War, naturally the Moon has moved away from the Sun. Hence, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Uranus, Venus and Neptune are the seven great planets mentioned by Vyas.

Praja Samharane Rajan Somam Sapta grahah Iva......[22-Drona 37].

Here again seven planets are mentioned, excluding the Moon.

Even if we do not consider the planetary positions, from the above three stanzas, it is clear that seven planets are mentioned which do not include the Sun, Moon, Rahu and Ketu. Naturally the conclusion is inevitable that Vyas did know Uranus (Shveta) and Neptune (Shyama) as planets.

If they were known from 5561 years B.C. then why they got forgotten ? The answer is simple, that these two planets, Uranus and Neptune were not useful in predicting the future of a person. So they lost impor- tance and in the course of time they were totally forgotten. But, in any case, Neelakantha from 17th century knew these two planets very weIl. Neelakantha is about a hundered years ancient than Her- schel, and he writes that Mahapata (Uranus) is a famous planet in the Astronomical science of India. He also mentions the planet 'Parigha' i.e. Neptune. 22 So both were known in India, at least one Hundered years before Herschel. Vyas is 7343 years ancient than Herschel, but still he knew all the three planets Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.

ADDITIONAL EVIDENCE
Kshaya or Vishvaghasra Paksha
A fortnight of only thirteen days is told by Vyasa which occured just before the great War. Such a fortnight comes at the interval of 22 years. Calculations show that at 5562nd B.C. Kshaya Paksha did occur. It had occured 1962 and 1940. 1962+5562 = 7524 is completely divisi- ble by 22.

Amavasya confirmed
Krishna and Karna fixed the day of War on Amavasya (Udyog 142). Vyas also indicates in Bhishma 2 & 3 that the War started on the day second Amayasya, because two successive Amavasyas appeared then. Bhishma died on the day after 67 (58+9) nights from the onset of the War, on the occasion Uttarayan i.e. 22nd December. So the War must have commenced on 16th October. Let us see if Amavasya comes on this day.

In 1979, Amavasya was on 21st of October. Amavasyas repeat after the intervals of 29.53058 days. The Lunar year is of 354.367 days while the Solar year is 365.25 days. 1979+5561 = 7540 multiplied by 365.25 and divided by 354.367 gives 7771.5616 Lunar years. 0.5616 Lunar year means 199.0125 days. 199.0125 divided by 29.53058 gives 6.7392005. This indicates that 6 Amavasyas are completed and 0.7392005 lunar month or 22 days are left. These 22 days are left for 21st October and we have to go behind upto 16th October. So adding these 6 days to 22 we get 28 days. After 28 days Amavasya can occur. After 29 days it always occurs. Thus on 15th and 16th October 5562nd year B.C, there were two successive amavasyas as mentioned by Vyas.

Another method gives the same conclusion. At the interval of 19 years the Amavasya falls on the same date. 19x365.25 divided by 29.53058 gives 235.00215. So in 19 years 235 Amavasya are completed. I found that on 17th October 1963, there was an Amavasya. 1963+5561 = 7524 divided by 19 gives 396. This division is complete, so there was an Amavasya. Thus it is established that Vyas has reported Amavasya correctly.

Eclipses
Vyas has mentioned that there was Solar as well as Lunar eclipses in one month at the time of Mahabharat War. Calculations confirm that in October 5561 year B.C, both the Solar and Lunar eclipses did occur. Rahu and Ketu were in Uttara Ashadha at 273 deg. & 279 deg. so total eclipse of the Sun took place on the Margashirsha Amavasya day Only 13 days earlier, according to Vyasa, there was Pournirma with lunar eclipse, causing pallor of the Moon. Thirteen days earlier the sun would have been 13 deg. behind at (279 - 13 =) 266 in Purva Ashadha. It was Pournima so the Moon was diagonally opposite at (266-180=) 86 deg. in Punarvasu, just beyond Mruga, so it was Margashirsha Pournima though it is wrongly or enigmatically told to be Kartika Pournima. Rahu was at 273 deg., so Ketu was diagonally opposite in Punarvasu, so the ellipse of the moon was possible which was not total.

A Big comet
Vyas has mentioned that at the time of Mahabharat War a big comet was seen just beyond Pushya Nakshtra. There are many comets. Indian Astro- nomical works refer to more than 500 comets, but big comets are very few. Haley's comet is one of the big comets which comes at the regu- lar intervals of 77 years. It was seen in 1910 and 1987. If we add 1910+5561 = 7271. 7271 is divisible completely by 77. Evidently it seems that it was Haley's comet was seen at the Mahabharat War.

Conclusion
All the twelve planets confirm their said positions on 16th October 5561 years B.C. along with two Amavasyas, two eclipses, Kshaya Paksha and a Comet. Thus, in all 18 mathematical positions fix the same date. Therefore, we have to accept this date of the Mahabharat War, if we want to be scientific. Please note that all the twelve planets will come in the same positions again only after 2229 crores of years. That means it will never happen again in the life of our earth, because life of the earth is only 400 crores of years. So the date of the Mahabharat War is pin-pointed as 16th October 5561 B.C.

APPENDIX
Hereunder is provided a short table dates of important Mahabharat events in years. (Dates and Tithis in years in Rama Samvat assuming Shri Rama Samvat 1st January. 1 equivalent to 1st Jan 7323 B.C. Rama's birth date has been conclusively proved to be 4th Dec. 7323 B.C.( "Vastav Ramayan").

EVENTDATE
Going to forest4th Sept. 5574 BC
Kitmeet Killed7th Sept. 5574 BC
Going underground19th May 5562 BC
Keechak killed1st April 5561 BC
Anukeechak-Massacre2nd April 5561 BC
End of secret life9th April 5561 BC
Cows stolen15th April 5561 BC
Arjuna exposed16th April 5561 BC
All pandavas exposed19th April 5561 BC
Marriage of Uttara & Abhimanyu. 4th May.
Krishna set out for a treaty. 27th Sept.
Stay at Upaplavya27th Sept.
Stay at Vrukshthala28th Sept.
Dinner to Brahmins29th Sept.
Entry into Hastinapur30th Sept.
Krishna meets Kunti etc.1st Oct.
Invited for meeting2nd Oct.
First meeting3rd Oct.
2nd meeting & an attempt to arrest Krishna.  4th Oct.
Third meeting Vishvaroopa 7th Oct.
Stay at Kunti8th Oct.
Krishna meets Karna. War fixed. 9th Oct.
Krishna returns9th Oct.
Pandavas preparation Balaram's visit. 11th Oct.
Mahabharat war started16th Oct.
Abhimanyu killed28th Oct. 5561 BC.
End of War 2nd November 5561 B.C.
Yudhishthira crowned16th Nov. 5551 BC.
Bhishma expired22nd Dec. 5561 BC
Pandava campaign for wealth15th Jan. 5560 BC
Parikshita born28th Jan. 5560 BC
Pandavas return25th Feb. 5560 BC
Ashvamedh Deeksha.1st March 5560 BC
Return of Arjuna Horse15th Jan. 5560 BC
Ashvamedh yajna22nd Feb. 5559 BC
Dhrutarashtra went to forest18th Aug. 5545 BC
Pandavas visited Kunti Vidura expired 18th Aug. 5543 BC
Death of Kunti, Dhrutarashtra, and Gandhari Sept./Oct. 5541 BC
Yadava Massacre5525 B.C.
Parikshit Dead5499 B.C.

References
P.V.Vartak, Swayambhu (in Marathi), Ved Vidnyana Mandal, Pune [] [→]



DATING THE KURUKSHETRA WAR

Scholars from across the world came together, for the first time, in an attempt to establish the 'Date of Kurukshetra War based on astronomical data.' Undoubtedly, it was an amazing collation of information presented in a colloquium, held on January 5 and 6, 2003 at the Mythic Society, Bangalore. The colloquium was jointly organized by The Mythic Society, Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts - Southern Regional Centre and Sir Babasaheb (Umakanth Keshav) Apte Smarak Samithi Trust.

Inaugurating the two day session, Dr. Raja Ramanna, Member of Parliament and eminent nuclear scientist, emphasized that the 'best clock for dating was the sky itself and the position of stars.' He added that 'research and scientific theory should be questioned although he found that many homes and libraries hampered the progress of research by keeping ancient manuscripts to themselves.'

Dr. Kalyan Raman clarified the purpose of the colloquium in his introductory remarks. Well-known historian, Dr. Suryanath Kamath, in his Presidential address explained the objective as an ' exploration of the authenticity of dates using planetary software and textual evidences containing over 150 references.' He felt that 'chronology was most important for the history of any society since history without chronology is like a body without a skeleton.' He also gave a detailed explanation of the development of the Mythic library and the collections.

The other dignitaries present on the dais were Dr. M.K.L.N. Sastry - Hon. Secretary, Mythic Society, Prof. P.V. Krishna Bhat - Hon. Coordinator, IGNCA-SRC and Shri K. Narahari - Managing Trustee, Apte Trust. The opening session set the tone for the mind stirring sessions with various interpolations found in the Mahabharata. Several scholars put forth their perception and calculated derivations. Dr. S. Balakrishna (NASA, USA) proved the occurrence of 'two eclipses in (a span of) 13 days prior to Mahabharata'. Analysing the astronomical possibility of Vyasa's statement in Bhishma Parva "Amavasya occured on the 13th day. Two eclipses in a month, on the thirteenth day." he presented the data of eclipses during the period 3300 BCJ (Before the Calendar of Julian Ceaser) to 700 BCJ visible at Kuruxethra, using Lodestar Pro software. He stated the possibility of 672 eclipse pairs, ten 'thirteen day lunar first' eclipse pairs and concluded that 2559 BC eclipse pair was nearest to the text of Mahabharata.

Prof. R.N. Iyengar (I.I.Sc., Bangalore) systematically dealt with "Internal consistency of eclipses and planetary positions in Mahabharata". Verifying all double eclipses of 501-3000 B.C. and when Satur + Jupiter were near Vishaka, he concluded that 1478 B.C. was the most likely year of the war.

Dr. B.N. Narahari Achar (Dept. of Physics, University of Memphis, U.S.A.) gave a brief description of various available planetary software, a review of the works of astrophysicists Kochhar, Siddharth and astronomers, Sengupta and Srinivasa Raghavan and other astronomical references in the epic. He critically examined the limitations and the reliability of simulations and concluded that the astronomical events in the Mahabharata pointed to 3000 B.C.E. (Before Common Era)* and simulation of events to 3067 B.C.E., identical to the one given by Raghavan.

Speaking on 'The date of Mahabharata War with reference to Bhishmashtami', Dr. Kalyan Rama (Chennai) validated the ground truth of River Saraswati of Vedic times that established the historicity of the Mahabharata.

Dr. Shambhu Shastry (Franklin, USA) and Dr. Venkateswara Reddy dealt with 'Natural cycles in the Solar System and Chaturyuga Cycles.' Dr. Kalyan Raman (Chennai) validated the ground truth of River Saraswati of Vedic times that established the historicity of the Mahabharata.

Dr. Shambu Shastry (Franklin, USA) and Dr. Venkateswara Reddy dealt with 'Natural cycles in the Solar System and Chaturyuga Cycles.' Dr. Shambhu Shastry showed that the chatuyuga and manavantara schemes of Hindu chronology are directly from natural astronomical cycles and based on this, he stated, that the human race is about five million years old. He concluded that this helped demythologize the Mahabharata and Ramayana and placed them in the last descending Chaturyuga segment over a time span of not more than 6000 years.

Shri P.V. Holey (Nagpur) was of the opinion that the war began on the 13th day of November 3143 B.C. He sourced this to crucial events with planetary positions after a comparative study of astronomical dates based on nakshatra, the Julian and Gregorian systems.

On the second day, Dr. Mohan Gupta (Ujjain) dealt with Puranic and Astronomical evidences. Based on genealogical and astronomical calculations he concluded that 17th October 1952 B.C. Thursday, Marga Krsna Amavasya kali 1157 or shakapurva 2029, Julian year 2762 as the date when the Mahabharata war began. Dr. S.R. Rao based his derivation on archaeological evidence obtained from onshore and offshore excavations conducted in Dwaraka, Bet Dwarka and in the Kurukshetra region and found 1900-1700 B.C. as acceptable.

Dr. N.S. Rajaram (Bangalore) expressed a need to exercise caution while interpreting astronomicla statements and that it should take into account both the literary evolution and interpolated passages. He felt 3100m B.C. had the best astronomical support. Shri K.V. Ramakrishna Rao (Thiruvananthapuram), felt that due to periodical corrections in Indian astronomical works, changes had crept it and without the significance of the two ears - kali and saka - dates cannot be determined, Dr. M.V. Subba Rao (Secundrabad) gave astrological references of Sri Krishna and felt that the dates could be calcutated from the day of Ktrishna's birth. Shri M.V. Narasimhan (Mysore) spoke of a research methodology using the shastric and the scientific inputs. Referring to Pulakesin's inscription and comet at Nagercoil he concluded 3100 B.C. as the year of the war.

Despite the inspiring deliberations, it was observed that further resource data from varied fields was required to calibrate supportive evidence. Thus the concluding session unanimously drew a plan of action. Dr. S. Nagaraju reviewed the colloquium with regard to the two objectives set at the beginning - to establish internal consistency with respect to dates and chronology mentioned in the Mahabharata and whether it could be proved using planetary software and secondly, if a correct date of the Mahabharata could be derived from the 150 astronomical references and have a sheet anchor of chronology of pre-Buddhist India? He said that at least four papers dealt with the problem directly and clarified a non-discrepancy with respect to the dates given. This is he felt was the most important contribution of the colloquium. But a problem he sighted was, out of the one-lakh odd sholkas, to distinguish what was added at what time. In this context he suggested that more interactions might be had with people who had knowledge of geography and other related areas of study. Secondly, he felt that the dating of the Mahabharata war could not be done merely on the basis of astronomy alone. Since there are a number of texts one should find out the correct text and establish a critical edition giving all details.

Dr. R. Subramaniam in his observations also agreed that there was a need to develop a critical editions of the verses with interpretations in consensus with astronomy, history, archaeology, Sanskrit astrology and mathematics. He suggested that verifications should take into account occurrence of double eclipse, Saturn in Rohini and the use of all available software and data. Another valid point he raised was the absence of direct reference to winter solstice in the Mahabharata. Once that is available it was felt that 'everything could be nailed.'

'Where do we go from here?' Answering the self-query Dr. Kalyan Raman voiced the common desire to 'trash Western Indological work done with motivation and instead rewrite Indian history.' The fundamental task would bring to light traditional works which can be achieved in a series of colloquiums. Truth, he felt, should be perceived in terms of our national heritage and his colloquium had established the reliability of this tool.

The Chairperson, Prof. K.I. Vasu addressed the various issues discussed and surmized that the Mahabharata could be 'considered a historical document'.

- Report from Southern Regional Centre
(B.C.E. - Before Common Era (indicates dates before the Christian era, used especially by non-Christians; B.C.J. - indicated the Julian Calendar. The Julian Calendar is names after Julius Caesar who ordered its adoption in 45 B.C.E. upon the advice of Greek astronomer Sosigenes and decided to use a purely solar calendar. The Julian Calendar also established the order of the month and the days of the week as they exist in present day calendars. Caesar's Calendar consisted of 11 months of 30 or 31 days and a 28 day February with no leap year. In 1582 Pope Gregory XIII ordered another reform of the calendar, which came to be known as the Gregorian calendar. The Gregorian calendar is still in official use and was [] [→]


Nama-nama Kurawa versi India dan versi Nusantara

Versi India
1. Duryodana (Duryodhana)
2. Dursasana (Dussāsana)
3. Abaya (Abhaya)
4. Adityaketu (Ādithyakethu)
5. Alalupa (Alolupa)
6. Amapramadi (Amapramādhy)
7. Anadrusya (Anādhrushya)
8. Antudara (Anthudara)
9. Anuwinda (Anuvindha)
10. Aparajita (Aparājitha)
11. Ayubahu (Ayobāhu)
12. Bahwasi (Bahwāsy)
13. Bilawardana (Belavardhana)
14. Bimabala (Bhīmabela)
15. Bimawiga (Bhīmavega)
16. Bimawikra (Bhīmavikra)
17. Carucitra (Chāruchithra)
18. Citra (Chithra)
19. Citrabana (Chithrabāna)
20. Citraksa (Chithrāksha)
21. Citrakundala (Chithrakundala)
22. Citrakundhala (Chithrakundhala)
23. Citranga (Chithrāmga)
24. Citrawarma (Chithravarma)
25. Citrayuda (Chithrāyudha)
26. Danurdara (Dhanurdhara)
27. Dirkabahu (Dhīrkhabāhu)
28. Dirkaroma (Dīrkharoma)
29. Dredahasta (Dridhahastha)
30. Dredakarmawu (Dhridhakarmāvu)
31. Dredaksatra (Dridhakshathra)
32. Dredaratasyara (Dhridharathāsraya)
33. Dredasanda (Dridhasandha)
34. Dredawarma (Dridhavarma)
35. Duradara (Durādhara)
36. Durdarsa (Durdharsha)
37. Durmada (Durmada)
38. Durmarsana (Durmarshana)
39. Durmuka (Durmukha)
40. Dursaha (Dussaha)
41. Dursala (Dussala)
42. Durwigaha (Durvigāha)
43. Durwimuca (Durvimocha)
44. Duskarna (Dushkarna)
45. Dusparaja (Dushparāja)
46. Duspradarsa (Dushpradharsha)
47. Jalaganda (Jalagandha)
48. Jarasanda (Jarāsandha)
49. Kancanadwaja (Kānchanadhwaja)
50. Karna (Karna)
51. Kawaci (Kavachy)
52. Kradana (Kradhana)
53. Kundabedi (Kundhabhedy)
54. Kundadara (Kundhādhara)
55. Kundase (Kundhasāi)
56. Kundasi (Kundhāsy)
57. Kundi (Kundhy)
58. Mahabahu (Mahabāhu)
59. Mahodara (Mahodara)
60. Nagadata (Nāgadatha)
61. Nanda (Nanda)
62. Nisamgi (Nishamgy)
63. Pasi (Pāsy)
64. Pramada (Pramadha)
65. Sadasuwaka (Sadāsuvāk)
66. Saha (Saha)
67. Sala (Sala)
68. Sama (Sama)
69. Sarasana (Sarāsana)
70. Satwa (Sathwa)
71. Satyasanda (Sathyasandha)
72. Senani (Senāny)
73. Somakirti (Somakīrthy)
74. Subahu (Subāhu)
75. Suhasta (Suhastha)
76. Sujata (Sujātha)
77. Sulocana (Sulochana)
78. Sunaba (Sunābha)
79. Susena (Sushena)
80. Suwarca (Suvarcha)
81. Suwarma (Suvarma)
82. Suwiryaba (Suvīryavā)
83. Ugrase (Ugrasāi)
84. Ugrasena (Ugrasena)
85. Ugrasrawas (Ugrasravas)
86. Ugrayuda (Ugrāyudha)
87. Upacitra (Upachithra)
88. Upananda (Upananda)
89. Urnanaba (Ūrnanābha)
90. Walaki (Vālaky)
91. Watawiga (Vāthavega)
92. Wikarna (Vikarna)
93. Wikatinanda (Vikatinanda)
94. Winda (Vindha)
95. Wirabahu (Vīrabāhu)
96. Wirajasa (Virajass)
97. Wirawi (Virāvy)
98. Wisalaksa (Visālāksha)
99. Wiwitsu (Vivilsu)
100. Wrendaraka (Vrindāraka)
101. Yuyutsu (Yuyulssu) *
102.Dursala (Dussala) *
Versi Indonesia
1. Duryodana (Suyodana)
2. Dursasana (Duhsasana)
3. Abaswa
4. Adityaketu
5. Alobha
6. Anadhresya (Hanyadresya)
7. Anudhara (Hanudhara)
8. Anuradha
9. Anuwinda (Anuwenda)
10. Aparajita
11. Aswaketu
12. Bahwasi (Balaki)
13. Balawardana
14. Bhagadatta (Bogadenta)
15. Bima
16. Bimabala
17. Bimadewa
18. Bimarata (Bimaratha)
19. Carucitra
20. Citradharma
21. Citrakala
22. Citraksa
23. Citrakunda
24. Citralaksya
25. Citrangga
26. Citrasanda
27. Citrasraya
28. Citrawarman
29. Dharpasandha
30. Dhreksetra
31. Dirgaroma
32. Dirghabahu
33. Dirghacitra
34. Dredhahasta
35. Dredhawarman
36. Dredhayuda
37. Dretapara
38. Duhpradharsana
39. Duhsa
40. Duhsah
41. Durbalaki
42. Durbharata
43. Durdharsa
44. Durmada
45. Durmarsana
46. Durmukha
47. Durwimocana
48. Duskarna
49. Dusparajaya
50. Duspramana
51. Hayabahu
52. Jalasandha
53. Jarasanda
54. Jayawikata
55. Kanakadhwaja
56. Kanakayu
57. Karna
58. Kawacin
59. Krathana (Kratana)
60. Kundabhedi
61. Kundadhara
62. Mahabahu
63. Mahacitra
64. Nandaka
65. Pandikunda
66. Prabhata
67. Pramathi
68. Rodrakarma (Rudrakarman)
69. Sala
70. Sama
71. Satwa
72. Satyasanda
73. Senani
74. Sokarti
75. Subahu
76. Sudatra
77. Suddha (Korawa)
78. Sugrama
79. Suhasta
80. Sukasananda
81. Sulokacitra
82. Surasakti
83. Tandasraya
84. Ugra
85. Ugrasena
86. Ugrasrayi
87. Ugrayudha
88. Upacitra
89. Upanandaka
90. Urnanaba
91. Wedha
92. Wicitrihatana
93. Wikala
94. Wikatanana
95. Winda
96. Wirabahu
97. Wirada
98. Wisakti
99. Wiwitsu (Yuyutsu)
100.Wyudoru (Wiyudarus)



Yuyutsu adalah putra Dretarastra dari seorang dayang-dayang.
Dursala adalah adik perempuan Korawa. Ia satu-satunya wanita di antara para Korawa. [] [→]

Pustaka: Wikipedia, Kuliah tentang Mahabharara (Shrii Shrii Anandamurti),Mahabharata Online, 18 Parwa Mahabharata

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